The Caloritech™ IXS Bolt Heater (Stud Heater) is designed for insertion into large hollow studs. When energized, the heater is intended to expand the length of the stud to facilitate wrench tightening of the nut. These heaters are generally used in pairs or sets to achieve uniform bolt tension. Typical applications include assembly and disassembly of turbines, engine heads, dies, cylinders and large flanged connections. It should be noted that although the heaters are of premium quality, the elevated element sheath temperatures experienced in these applications can result in relatively brief heater life. However, limiting heater "on" time during a heating cycle to the minimum required can prolong service life.